By James C. Daly
Built-in circuits (ICs) do not continuously paintings the 1st time. many stuff can and do get it wrong in analog circuit designs. there are many universal blunders that frequently require high priced chip remodel and refabrication, all of that are shunned whilst designers are conscious of the pitfalls. to achieve luck, IC designers desire a entire toolbox-a toolbox crammed not just with a superior historical past in electronics, layout strategies and research talents, but in addition with the main helpful device of all: event.
Analog BiCMOS layout bargains IC layout engineers the educational comparable to a long time of useful adventure. Culled from the careers of training engineers, it provides the simplest tools and the pitfalls most often encountered within the layout of biCMOS built-in circuits. available to an individual who has taken a direction in electronics, this booklet covers the fundamental layout of bandgap voltage references, present mirrors, amplifiers, and comparators. It reports universal layout error frequently neglected and gives layout concepts used to treatment these problems.
With its whole assurance of uncomplicated circuit development blocks, complete information of universal layout pitfalls, and a compendium of layout and format difficulties and ideas, Analog BiCMOS layout is the appropriate reference for IC designers and engineers, fledgling and skilled alike. learn it to enhance your history, browse it for ideas on fending off pitfalls, and if you happen to run right into a challenge, use it to discover an answer.
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Extra resources for Analog BiCMOS Design: Practices and Pitfalls
Forty nine) the place pn0 = n2i /NDE is the equilibrium gap focus within the emitter. NDE is the donor doping focus within the emitter. Holes injected into the emitter diﬀuse to the emitter touch. Assuming negligible recombination within the emitter, this gap present is given by way of Equation 1. forty-one utilized right here to gap present within the npn base-emitter junction Vbe Ib = Ise e VT − 1 (1. 50) qDp AE n2i NDE WE (1. fifty one) the place Ise = the place Dp is the diﬀusion consistent for holes within the emitter and WE is the space of the emitter-base junction to the emitter touch. Recombination within the base additionally contributes to base present. each gap that recombines with an electron should be changed via a gap from the bottom touch. This contributes to base present. for contemporary built-in circuit transistors, this part is small. right here we forget about it. The transistor achieve β is the ratio of Ic /Ib . utilizing Equations 1. forty seven and 1. 50 Ic Dn WE NDE β= = . (1. fifty two) Ib Dp WB NA excessive β is completed by means of holding the width of the bottom WB small and doping the emitter extra seriously than the bottom. 1. five. three Ebers-Moll version The Ebers-Moll version describes the big sign DC operation of the bipolar transistor. reflect on the distribution of minority providers proven in determine 1. 10. we're attracted to 3 elements of present: Figure 1. 10 Minority provider distribution in an npn transistor. 1. Ipe holes ﬂowing within the n-type emitter. 2. Inc electrons ﬂowing within the p-type base. three. Ipc holes ﬂowing within the n-type collector. Inc consists of electrons injected from the emitter that diﬀuse around the base and are swept into the collector via the base-collector junction capability. The emitter present consists of this present plus holes diﬀusing around the emitter IE = −(Ipe + Inc ) (1. fifty three) The collector present is because of electrons diﬀusing around the base to the base-collector depletion area, and holes diﬀusing around the collector to the base-collector depletion area IC = Inc − Ipc (1. fifty four) right here we become aware of the conference of optimistic currents ﬂowing into the transistor. the present ﬂow mechanism is diﬀusion Inc = AE qDn dn np (0) − np (WB ) = AE qDn dx WB (1. fifty five) Invoking the legislation of the Junction, Equation 1. 31, to figure out provider densities Vbe Vbc AE qDn n2i Inc = e VT − e VT (1. fifty six) WB NA equally, Ipe = Vbe AE qDpe n2i e VT − 1 WE Nde (1. fifty seven) Ipc = Vbc AC qDpc n2i e VT − 1 Wepi Ndc (1. fifty eight) and where AE is the emitter zone, q is the digital cost, Dn is the electron diﬀusion consistent within the base, ni is the intrinsic provider focus, WB is the bottom width, NA is the bottom doping, VT = KT /q is the thermal voltage, Dne is the diﬀusion consistent within the emitter, WE is the emitter width, Nde is the emitter doping, AC is the realm of the collector-base junction, Dpc is the outlet diﬀusion consistent within the collector, Wepi is the width of the collector, and Ndc is the collector doping. Rewriting Equations 1. fifty six, 1. fifty seven, and 1. fifty eight utilizing constants, A, B, C, the place AE qDn n2i A= WB NA B= AE qDpe n2i WE Nde C= AC qDpc n2i Wepi Ndc utilizing the constants A, B, and C in Equations 1.