By Angus Konstam
The thought of a heavy cruiser emerged within the aftermath of the 1st global battle, and was once heavily associated with the boundaries set by means of the inter-war Washington Treaty on naval armament. The pre-Great battle proposal of armoured cruisers were deserted, yet of their stead the Admiralty observed a spot for strong cruisers, in a position to patrol the ocean lanes of the British Empire, and that have been well-enough armed that they can break enemy trade cruisers of the sort utilized by the Germans within the final war.
The consequence used to be a bunch of British warships that have been jointly often called the "Washington Treaty Cruisers", which did every thing the Admiralty sought after, yet which outfitted in the limits imposed by means of the Washington Treaty - an armament of 8-inch weapons, and a displacement of under 10,000 lots. those extraordinary cruisers have been high-sided, spacious and stately - excellent peacetime ambassadors for British energy.
In warfare additionally they packed a substantial punch. whereas all of them carried strong 8-inch weapons, they have been additionally given a good armoured belt, making them resistant to any international cruisers then in provider. throughout the moment international struggle the Royal Navy's 13 heavy cruisers observed carrier in each theatre of conflict, no matter if enjoying significant sea battles within the Mediterranean, supplying the coup de grace to the Bismarck within the North Atlantic, or enduring the undesirable consciousness of kamikaze pilots within the Pacific.
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Additional info for British Heavy Cruisers 1939-45 (New Vanguard)
Her port facet camouﬂage association was once nearly a reflect snapshot of the starboard aspect proven right here. prior to her 1939–40 reﬁt she was once painted in an total medium gray. primarily this scheme used to be one licensed to be used in the house Fleet. the chance to repaint her within the Alexandria-pattern camouﬂage favoured within the Mediterranean Fleet by no means offered itself. sixteen © Osprey Publishing • www. ospreypublishing. com © Osprey Publishing • www. ospreypublishing. com The Kent type heavy cruiser HMS Berwick present process a minor refit in Rosyth Dockyard at the Firth of Forth, through the past due summer season of 1943. in the course of her stopover at she had her closerange AA weaponry and radar suite up to date, and her airplane amenities got rid of. HEAVY CRUISER requirements, SEPTEMBER 1939 Hawkins classification Displacement 9,860 lots (standard) Dimensions size Beam Draught 605ft total 65ft 17ft 3in. Propulsion four Brown-Curtis generators, 12 Yarrow boilers, generating 65,000shp (Note: Hawkins ﬁtted with Parsons generators and 12 boilers, generating 55,000shp) greatest velocity 30½kn (Hawkins: 29½kn) gasoline oil skill 2,186 plenty (Hawkins: 2,600 lots) variety 5,400 miles at 14kn plane None ﬁtted (although catapult ﬁtted to Frobisher) Armour Belt Decks Conning tower Magazines 1½–3in. 1–1½in. 3in. ½–1in. supplement 690 oﬃcers and males Armament Hawkins four x 4in. Mk V QF weapons in unmarried mounts 2 x 2-pdrs in unmarried mounts 2 x 21in. torpedoes in unmarried underwater mounts Frobisher five x 7½in. Mk VI BL weapons in unmarried turrets 2 x 4in. Mk V QF weapons in unmarried mounts 2 x 2-pdrs in unmarried mounts 6 x 21in. torpedoes, 2 in unmarried underwater mounts, four in 2 x dual mounts Eﬃngham nine x 6in. Mk XII BL weapons in unmarried mounts, four x 4in. Mk V QF weapons in unmarried mounts 12 x ½in. MGs in three quadruple mounts Wartime Modiﬁcations Hawkins January 1940: four x unmarried 2-pdrs extra. may perhaps 1942: 2 x quad 2-pdr pom-poms extra; 7 x unmarried 20mm extra; 2 x unmarried 2pdrs got rid of; sort 273, 281 and 285 radars additional. August 1944: quad 2-pdrs changed by way of 8-barrelled types; 2 x unmarried 20mm additional. Frobisher March 1942: three x unmarried 4in. AA weapons further; four x quad 2-pdr pom-poms additional; 2 x unmarried 2-pdrs got rid of; 7 x unmarried 20mm further; variety 273, 281 and 285 radars extra. may perhaps 1944: 2 quad 2-pdrs changed through 8-barrelled models; 12 x unmarried 20mm further. Eﬃngham None 18 © Osprey Publishing • www. ospreypublishing. com Kent classification Displacement 10,900 plenty (standard) Dimensions size Beam Draught 630ft total 68ft 5in. 20ft 6in. Propulsion four Parsons generators, eight Admiralty boilers, generating 80,000shp (Note: Berwick ﬁtted with Brown-Curtis generators) greatest pace 31½kn gas oil skill 3,424 plenty diversity 9,350 miles at 12kn airplane One (Walrus) – sometimes carried Armour Belt Decks Turrets 1in. 1–4½in. round magazines 1in. supplement 784 oﬃcers and males Armament Berwick eight x 8in. Mk VIII BL weapons in dual turrets eight x 4in. Mk V QF weapons in dual mounts 2 x 8barrelled 2-pdrs eight x 21in. torpedoes in quadruple mounts 2 x quad ½in. MGs Cornwall eight x 8in. Mk VIII BL weapons in dual turrets eight x 4in.