Ecological Scale and Forest Development: Squirrels, Dietary Fungi, and Vascular Plants in Managed and Unmanaged Forests

By Andrew B. Carey, Janet Kershner, Brian Biswell, Laura Domínguez de Toledo

Summary: Understandingecological techniques and their spatial scales is essential to handling ecosystems for
biodiversity, in particular for species linked to late-seral wooded area. We serious about 2 species of squirrel (Sci-
uridae: northern flying squirrel, Glaucomys sabrinus, and Townsend's chipmunk,Tamias townsendii) in a
cross-sectional survey of controlled and naturalstandsin southwestern Oregon in the course of 1985-89.

We measured crops and abundances of squirrelsat >2,000 pointsin 19 stands in three seral stages.We defined the diets of the squirrels within the stands. We analyzed information at element, stand, and level scales to spot key procedures contributing to biodiversity and scales at which emergent homes (synergistic results) appeared.

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Conifersand hardwoods) inverselyrelated to cover closure. therefore, the 3rd issue represents the inside- and among-stand variationin canopydifferentiation thatis inof and of wooded area dedependent age level the issue eventually, velopment. understory incorporatedthe within-and among-stand variationin the foliage-heightprofile (especiallyshrub disguise) thatwas self sustaining of canopystratification (2-layercanopywith 2 age cohorts)but comprises the abundance of deciduous bushes that contributesto the This content material downloaded from 128. 223. 86. 31 on Thu, 21 Mar 2013 23:45:25 PM All use topic to JSTOR phrases and stipulations 32 flora and fauna Foliage-height variety MONOGRAPHS 2. sixty seven + zero. 14 2. forty five ? zero. 18 2. 10? zero. 20 Overstory Midstory Shrub Herbaceous OG Fig. 7. Foliage-heightdiversityprofilesshowingBerger-ParkerIndex values and percentcovers (in packing containers) via vegetationlayer forold-growth(OG), niche-diversification (ND), and competitive-exclusion (CE) levels in southwesternOregon, 1986-87. foliageprofilein younger stands. The understory issue represents transferof conceal fromoverstoryto understory(forbs,ferns, and shrubs). Within-standfactoranalysisproduced four components additionally interpretable as crown-class differentiation(13 of nineteen stands), decadence (all outdated growth,and 1 each one in area of interest A diversificationand competitiveexclusion), (11 of nineteen stands),and cover stratification understorydevelopment (17 of nineteen stands). moreover, a canopy-closurefactor(gradient of stem exclusion) was once present in 6 of eight competitive-exclusion,2 of three niche-diversification,but only one of eight old-growth stands. A fewindividualstandshad particular B 7. zero -0 6. zero E five. zero o C A o : four. zero three. zero - _I_ 2. zero five o A four. - r Crowndifferentiation gradient I zero. 7 D m zero. four Oa zero. 2 zero. 1 nn I -t 111 T T11 zero. five o zero. - 2 -0. . 2 zero. 8I C zero. three zero. 09 zero. zero -1. zero E zero. 6 I11 . - . I TtI eleven ZttII CE CE . . . OG . . . ND ND . three I . 6 C C 8j 1. zero C 1. ? zero E zero. i a, . L ~I eleven 1.. 2 Crowndifferentiation gradient . o 1.. u zero zero. eight E o ) zero. 6 I1I 111t I zero. 2 OG -- . - . . - d zero. zero - - - CE 1 3I . ... .. ND X OG Fig. eight. kinfolk among huge reside bushes, mediumsnags, stand age, and crown-classdifferentiation (the firstfactorof woodland structurederivedfromdata on 1,789 plots)measured in 19 stands insouthwesternOregon, 1986-87: (A) numbersofliveconifers >50 cm dbh as opposed to crown-class differentiation, (B) numbers of snags 10-50 cm dbh as opposed to crown-class differentiation, (C) numbersof stay conifers>50 cm dbh as opposed to stands arrayed via chronosequence and seral level, and (D) numbersof snags 10-50 cm dbh as opposed to seral level. phases are competitiveexclusion (CE), area of interest diversification (ND), and previous growth(OG). This content material downloaded from 128. 223. 86. 31 on Thu, 21 Mar 2013 23:45:25 PM All use topic to JSTOR phrases and stipulations SCALE AND HABITAT-Carey et al. factorssuch as deciduous as opposed to coniferous medium-dbh bushes and abundance of forbs. The first4 factorsin each one stand defined 62-68% of the variance within the info units. therefore, factorsoperatingacross stands additionally operated inside stands; version in decadence, however,was a bigger a part of variationin total stand structurein lateseral stands than in younger stands.

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