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Extra resources for Embedded Operating Systems: A Practical Approach (Undergraduate Topics in Computer Science)
It exhibits that every I/O move is linked to a dossier descriptor. while any dossier item is opened by way of a method, a dossier descriptor is created that is an index to the dossier item. firstly, dossier descriptors 0,1 and a pair of mapped to units, that's, keyboard and monitor. in spite of the fact that, those dossier descriptors could be mapped to different dossier gadgets. those dossier items will be different units or genuine Fig. 2. 1 technique input/output 2. 6 method Input/Output 25 desk 2. three precis of input/ouput streams dossier descriptor move identify Abbreviation Default gadget zero general enter stdin Keyboard 1 typical output stdout monitor 2 usual blunders stderr display typical records. This known as I/O redirection. The shell helps redirection of the traditional I/O streams. during this part we current a few examples of I/O redirection. The > operator is used to redirect usual output. We use the date command to illustrate. The functionality of the date command is to reveal the present time and date on stdout. with out specifying any redirection, the time and date is displayed at the reveal: $ date Mon Sep sixteen 15:29:15 BST 2013 We run the command back, even though this time we redirect stdout to a dossier datefile: $ date > datefile We see not anything displayed at the reveal. If we study datefile, we see that it includes the time and date of whilst the date command used to be run: $ cat datefile Mon Sep sixteen 15:32:05 BST 2013 As datefile didn't exist earlier than we issued the date command, the stdout redirection operator prompted the shell to create it. If datefile had already existed, its content material might were overwritten through the output of date. The >> operator additionally redirects stdout to a dossier, yet in contrast to > if appends the output of a command to the present content material. for instance: $ date >> datefile $ cat datefile Mon Sep sixteen 15:32:14 BST 2013 Mon Sep sixteen 15:32:34 BST 2013 The < operator redirects a dossier to stdin of a procedure. within the instance we use the dc command that's a calculator that accepts mathematical expressions in reverse-polish notation. by way of default, dc reads stdin (in this situation is the keyboard) for directions. We input the string “2 three + p” and method outputs the reply (5): 26 2 evaluate of GNU/Linux $ dc 2 three + p five to teach how stdin will be redirected from a dossier, create a dossier with an expression in opposite polish notation: $ echo "2 three + p" > dcfile Now run dc and redirect dcfile to stdin: $ dc < dcfile five ordinary enter is additionally redirected from right here files utilizing the << operator. A the following rfile is a literal enter movement that looks in the resource code itself. within the instance under, EOF is used as a delimiter to point the start and finish of the contents of the the following record: $ dc <<-EOF > 2 three + p > 10 * p > EOF five 50 common output and traditional mistakes are separate streams even if they either default to the monitor. although, as they're separate streams, they are often redirected individually. reflect on the command-line lower than: $ time date Tue Sep 17 11:14:35 BST 2013 genuine 0m0. 004s person 0m0.