By Seyed Behrooz Mostofi
This publication is dedicated to the outline of the main regularly occurring classifications of the main common fractures in scientific perform. This ebook may be very helpful to begin with for the trauma citizens but in addition for more matured trauma surgeons. for every kind of fracture one or numerous classifications are defined. All classifications are illustrated by means of a really transparent and easy drawing. This variation will comprise new classifications and classifications that experience received attractiveness within the final three years, leading to 25% new fabric.
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Extra resources for Fracture Classifications in Clinical Practice 2nd Edition
With Permission from the Journals of yankee collage of Surgeons. ) 3. PELVIS AND decrease LIMB forty nine Seinsheimer Classiﬁcation (Figure three. eleven) The Seinsheimer classiﬁcation relies at the variety of significant bone fragments and the site and form of the fracture traces. Nondisplaced fracture or any fracture with <2 mm of displacement of the fracture fragments. style II: Two-part fractures. sort IIA: Two-part transverse femoral fracture. sort IIB: Two-part spiral fracture with the lesser trochanter connected to the proximal fragment. variety IIC: Two-part spiral fracture with the lesser trochanter hooked up to the distal fragment. sort III: Three-part fractures. style IIIA: Three-part spiral fracture within which the lesser trochanter is a part of the 3rd fragment, which has an inferior spike of cortex of various size. style IIIB: Three-part spiral fracture of the proximal 3rd of the femur, the place the 3rd half is a butterﬂy fragment. variety IV: Comminuted fracture with 4 or extra fragments. sort V: Subtrochanteric-intertrochanteric fracture, together with any subtrochanteric fracture with extension during the larger trochanter. kind I: 50 FRACTURE CLASSIFICATIONS IN medical perform variety II A B C 1 1 1 2 2 2 variety III B A 1 1 2 2 three three style IV style V 1 2 three four determine three. eleven. Seinsheimer classiﬁcation. (Reproduced with permission and copyright © of The magazine of Bone and Joint surgical procedure, Inc. Seinsheimer F. Subtrochanteric fractures of the femur. J Bone Joint Surg 1977;60-A;300–306. ) 3. PELVIS AND reduce LIMB fifty one Russel-Taylor Classiﬁcation (Figure three. 12) style I: Fractures don't expand into piriformis fossa: variety IA: Lesser trochanter is connected to the proximal fragment style IB: Lesser trochanter is indifferent from the proximal fragment style II: Fractures that stretch into the piriformis fossa: variety IIA: No signiﬁcant comminution or fracture of lesser trochanter sort IIB: Signiﬁcant comminution of the medial femoral cortex and lack of continuity of lesser trochanter Femoral Shaft Descriptive Classiﬁcation Open as opposed to closed position: proximal, center, or distal one-third; supraisthmal or infraisthmal development: spiral, indirect, or transverse Angulation: varus, valgus, or rotational deformity Displacement: shortening or translation Comminuted, segmental, or butterﬂy fragment determine three. 12. Russel-Taylor classiﬁcation. fifty two FRACTURE CLASSIFICATIONS IN medical perform Winquist and Hansen Classiﬁcation (Figure three. thirteen) The Winquist and Hansen classiﬁcation relies on comminution; most respected for identifying the necessity for interlocking nails. variety I: minimum or no comminution variety II: Cortices of either fragments not less than 50% intact style III: 50% to a hundred% cortical comminution variety IV: Circumferential comminution with out cortical touch on the fracture web site determine three. thirteen. Winquist and Hansen classiﬁcation of femoral shaft fractures: from left to correct (Type zero, style I, sort II, variety III, kind IV). (Reproduced with permission from Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Winquist RA, Hansen ST.