Lisbon: War in the Shadows of the City of Light, 1939-45

By Neill Lochery

Lisbon had a pivotal function within the background of worldwide struggle II, although now not a gun was once fired there. the one eu urban during which either the Allies and the Axis energy operated brazenly, it used to be transitority domestic to a lot of Europe’s exiled royalty, over a million refugees looking passage to the united states, and a number of spies, mystery police, captains of undefined, bankers, widespread Jews, writers and artists, escaped POWs, and black marketeers. An operations officer writing in 1944 defined the day-by-day scene at Lisbon’s airport as being just like the motion picture “Casablanca,” instances twenty.

during this riveting narrative, well known historian Neill Lochery attracts on his relationships with high-level Portuguese contacts, entry to files lately exposed from Portuguese mystery police and banking files, and different unpublished records to supply a revelatory portrait of the War’s again degree. And he tells the tale of the way Portugal, a comparatively terrible ecu state making an attempt frantically to stay impartial amidst remarkable pressures, survived the conflict not just bodily intact yet considerably wealthier. The country’s emergence as a filthy rich eu Union kingdom will be financed partly, it seems, through a cache of Nazi gold.

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July five and six, 1940. 6 Ibid. , July five, 1940. 7 Ibid. , July 6, 1940. eight Ibid. nine Ibid. , July 10 and 24, 1940. 10 Ibid. , July eight, 1940. eleven Bloch, Operation Willi, p. 112. 12 Ibid. , p. 113. thirteen PT/TT/AOS/CO/NE-1A/17/Report of the PVDE at the stopover at of the Duke of Windsor to Portugal, July 10, 1940. 14 Ibid. , July 12, 1940. 15 Ibid. , July eleven, 1940. sixteen Ibid. , July 12, 1940. 17 Ibid. , July thirteen, 1940. 18 Bloch, Operation Willi, pp. 114–115. 19 Ibid. 20 PT/TT/AOS/CO/NE-1A/17/Report of the PVDE at the stopover at of the Duke of Windsor to Portugal, July 23, 1940. 21 David Eccles, through secure Hand: The Letters of Sybil and David Eccles, 1939–1942 (London: Bodley Head, 1983), p. 132. 22 Ibid. , p. 133. 23 Ibid. , p. 139. 24 PT/TT/AOS/CO/NE-1A/17/Report of the PVDE at the stopover at of the Duke of Windsor to Portugal, July 20, 1940. 25 Ibid. , July thirteen, 1940. 26 Ibid. , July 20, 1940. 27 Ibid. , July 26, 1940. 28 Bloch, Operation Willi, p. 191. 29 Ibid. 30 Walford Selby, Diplomatic Twilight, 1930–1940 (London: John Murray, 1953), p. 122. 31 Richard J. Evans, The 3rd Reich at warfare: How the Nazis Led Germany from Conquest to catastrophe (London: Penguin, 2009), p. 137. 32 Ibid. , pp. 137–138. bankruptcy 12—Spanish Connections 1 PT/TT/AOS/O Diário de Salazar, September three, 1940. 2 PRO/FO/371/36794/Report of Chiefs of employees on attainable army aid to Portugal, April 29, 1941. three For an in depth account, see Patrick Wilcken, Empire Adrift: The Portuguese court docket in Rio de Janeiro, 1808–1821 (London: Bloomsbury, 2004). four PRO/HS/6/978/Operation Panicle, could 19, 1941. five David Eccles, via secure Hand: The Letters of Sybil and David Eccles, 1939–1942 (London, Bodley Head, 1983). 6 PRO/FO/371/24491/Situation in Portugal and the Iberian Peninsula, June 24, 1940, p. 349. 7 On Spanish certain plans for invasion, see Manuel Ros Agudo, A Grande Tentação: Os Planos de Franco para Invadir Portugal (Lisbon: Casa das Letras, 2009). eight Filipe Ribeiro de Meneses, Salazar: A Political Biography (New York: Enigma Books, 2009), p. 254. nine Eccles, by means of secure Hand, pp. 103–104. 10 PT/TT/AOS/CP-64/Letter from Churchill to Salazar, September 24, 1940. eleven NARA/RG84/40/ basic Correspondence of U. S. Embassy in Lisbon, 1941. From Fish to nation division, January 15, 1941, p. 1. 12 Ibid. , p. three. thirteen Ibid. , p. 2. 14 Ibid. 15 NARA/RG56/23/Classified Correspondence of Embassy in Lisbon, From wooden to U. S. Treasury, September 27, 1943, p. four. sixteen Ibid. 17 NARA/RG56/2/ basic files of the Embassy in Lisbon, a few Notes at the scenario in Portugal, July 31 1945, p. eight. 18 F. Norton Brandão, “Epidemiology of Venereal ailment in Portugal throughout the moment international War,” British magazine of Venereal illnesses 36, no. 2 (1960), p. 136. 19 NARA/RG84/41/General documents of the Embassy in Lisbon/ From Fish to country division, could 1, 1941, p. 1. 20 Ibid. , p. 2. 21 Ibid. , p. 1. 22 Ibid. , p. three. 23 Ibid. , p. 1. 24 Ibid. , p. four. 25 Ibid. , p. five. bankruptcy 13—Secret Jewish Rescue Lists 1 Peggy Guggenheim, Out of This Century: Confessions of an artwork Addict, the Autobiography of Peggy Guggenheim (London: Andre Deutsch, 2005), p. 245. 2 Rosemary Bailey, Love and battle within the Pyrenees: a narrative of braveness, worry and wish, 1939–1944 (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 2008), p.

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