Mac OS X and iOS Internals: To the Apple's Core

By Jonathan Levin

An in-depth inspect Mac OS X and iOS kernels

Powering Macs, iPhones, iPads and extra, OS X and iOS have gotten ubiquitous. in terms of documentation, even though, a lot of them are shrouded in secret. Cocoa and Carbon, the applying frameworks, are well defined, yet approach programmers locate the remainder missing. This essential advisor illuminates the darkest corners of these structures, beginning with an architectural review, then drilling all of the method to the core.

  • Provides you with a most sensible down view of OS X and iOS
  • Walks you thru the stages of approach startup—both Mac (EFi) and cellular (iBoot)
  • Explains how approaches, threads, digital reminiscence, and filesystems are maintained
  • Covers the safety architecture
  • Reviews the inner Apis utilized by the system—BSD and Mach
  • Dissects the kernel, XNU, into its sub elements: Mach, the BSD Layer, and I/o package, and explains each one in detail
  • Explains the interior workings of machine drivers

From structure to implementation, this booklet is key interpreting a good way to get fascinated by the interior workings of Mac OS X and iOS.

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This guarantees that POSIX-compatible code should be ported — on the resource point — among any POSIX appropriate working method. Code from OS X should be ported to Linux, FreeBSD, or even Solaris — so long as it is dependent upon not anything greater than POSIX calls and the C/C++ typical libraries. process name numbers: the foremost POSIX services, as well as the mounted prototype, have well-defined procedure name numbers. This enables(to a restricted volume) binary portability — that means POSIX-compiled binary may be ported among POSIX platforms of an analogous underlying structure (for instance, Solaris can run local Linux binaries — either are ELF). OS X doesn't aid this, in spite of the fact that, simply because its item layout, Mach-O, is incompatible with ELF. what is extra, its process name numbers deviate from these of the traditional. The POSIX compatibility is supplied by means of the BSD layer of XNU. The system-call prototypes are in . We speak about their implementations in bankruptcy eight. Mach procedure Calls keep in mind that OS X is equipped upon the Mach kernel, a legacy of NeXTSTEP. The BSD layer wraps the Mach kernel, yet its local approach calls are nonetheless obtainable from consumer mode. in truth, with out Mach procedure calls, universal instructions akin to most sensible would not paintings. In 32-bit platforms, Mach approach calls are destructive. This inventive trick permits either POSIX and Mach procedure calls to exist part by way of aspect. simply because POSIX simply defines non-negative process calls, the damaging area is left undefined, and as a result usable via Mach. In 64-bit structures, Mach approach calls are confident, yet are prefixed with 0x2000000 — which basically separates and disambiguates them from the POSIX calls, that are prefixed with 0x1000000. the web appendix at http://newosxbook. com lists a few of the POSIX and Mach method calls. we are going to additional conceal the transition to Kernel mode in bankruptcy eight, and the Kernel point of view of procedure calls and traps in Chapters nine and thirteen. scan: exhibiting Mach and BSD process calls approach calls will not be referred to as at once, yet through skinny wrappers in libSystem. B. dylib. utilizing otool(1), the default Mach-O dealing with instrument and disassembler on OS X, you could disassemble (with the –tV swap) any binary, and peek inside of libSystem. this may assist you to see how the method name interface in OS X works with either Mach and BSD calls. On a 32-bit method, a Mach method name could glance anything like this: Morpheus@Ergo (/) % otool –arch i386 –tV /usr/lib/libSystem. B. dylib | extra /usr/lib/libSystem. B. dylib: (__TEXT,__text) part _mach_reply_port: 000010c0 movl $0xffffffe6,%eax ; Load procedure name # into EAX 000010c5 calll __sysenter_trap 000010ca ret 000010cb nop ; padding to 32-bit boundary _thread_self_trap: 000010cc movl $0xffffffe5,%eax ; Load approach name # into EAX… 000010d1 calll __sysenter_trap 000010d6 ret 000010d7 nop ; padding to 32-bit boundary __sysenter_trap: 000013d8 popl %edx 000013d9 movl %esp,%ecx 000013db sysenter ; really execute sysenter 000013dd nopl (%eax) The process name quantity is loaded into the EAX check in. notice the quantity is certain as 0xFFFFxxxx.

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