On Aristotle Meteorology 1.1-3 (Ancient Commentators on Aristotle)

By Philoponus

Aristotle's Meteorology prompted generations of hypothesis concerning the earth sciences, starting from atmospheric phenomena to earthquakes. The remark of John Philoponus (6th century advert) at the beginning 3 chapters of Meteorology is right here translated for the 1st time into English by means of Dr Inna Kupreeva, development at the paintings of L.G. Westerink. Philoponus, who this present day is more and more revered as a thinker in his personal correct, the following engages severely with Aristotle's perspectives concerning the building-blocks of our international, its measurement and courting to different heavenly our bodies, and reception of heat from the sunlight. the interpretation during this quantity is observed via an in depth advent, broad statement notes and a bibliography.

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Air and hearth) inevitably rises above these . For it follows that what's opposite in its powers needs to occupy opposite positions: now as gentle is opposite to heavy and scorching to chilly, so up is opposite to down; and the center is down, whereas the circumference is up. yet simply as earth, being heavier than water strikes under it and subsides, so hearth being lighter than air rises to the skin and takes up the farthest position upward between all 4. hence water is contiguous to earth, and subsequent to water is air, which, inasmuch because it is wet, borders upon water, yet inasmuch because it is hot, is in touch with the fireplace that comes after it. 151 [Aristotle] says, ‘what is habitually referred to as fireplace, although it's not particularly fire’. The flame in our international isn't hearth in a formal sense,152 being an far more than typical warmth, within the comparable method as ice and snow should not the fundamental chilly, yet an way over it; for the fundamental cold and warm shield what's composed out of them, whereas the issues pointed out are to the contrary damaging; as a result no composite factor is shaped out of them. What, then, is the basic sizzling, which has its place past the air? [Aristotle] explains this advancing step-by-step; yet we will study what he has stated earlier than. the truth that heavy issues were disbursed momentum towards the center of the universe, i. e. , the centre, is validated by means of the truth that heavy items from any element of the realm flow down from the circumference to the earth and that rainwater makes equivalent angles on either sides;153 this may no longer be the case in the event that they didn't have their momentum towards the very centre of the universe and if this weren't the tip in their movement. you are going to comprehend the purpose from the next: the heavenly physique being round, and the earth being inside of it and having been confirmed round, in case you draw circles, the only outdoors and enclosing, the opposite inside of and enclosed by way of it, and from the bigger outer circle you draw directly traces from any element towards the interior one, those who circulation towards the centre make equivalent angles on each side, yet those who omit the centre, make unequal angles, the only acute, the opposite, to the contrary, obtuse. for this reason simply the strains directed in the direction of the centre have been drawn which will shape equivalent angles on each side, and people drawn that allows you to shape equivalent angles converge upon the centre. 154 For if any of them should still deviate that allows you to fall outdoor the centre, they stick with the movement of sunshine issues in the direction of the circumference, and never the movement that's right to heavy issues, which inevitably needs to all keep on with one perpendicular line towards the centre. This having been verified therefore in arithmetic, enable the outer circle be the air that surrounds the earth, and the internal one the earth. Now if heavy items relocating in the direction of the earth from all over the place all process it at equivalent angles, and simply those who have their Translation sixty five momentum in the direction of the precise centre [approach the earth at equivalent angles],155 it really is transparent that the earth too occupies the center of the universe, i.

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