“The past due Robert Dahl’s On Democracy is the resource for a way to control democratically. Following the tools and channeling the perception of Dahl, Ian Shapiro’s new version completes Dahl’s undertaking and is needs to examining for the following iteration and crucial re-reading for the present.”—Michael Doyle, Columbia University
“Dahl’s tersest precis of the teachings of his profoundly influential interrogation of democracy’s strengths and weaknesses. Ian Shapiro exhibits forcefully what we've got discovered considering that its preliminary publication.”—John Dunn, writer of Breaking Democracy’s Spell
“Robert A. Dahl’s On Democracy admirably synthesized the contributions of the world’s best democratic theorist of the 20 th century. Now Ian Shapiro intelligently consists of Dahl’s queries and matters into our personal century.”—Robert D. Putnam, writer of Our little ones: the yank Dream in Crisis
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Extra resources for On Democracy: Second Edition
We would undertake a mental experiment, so to speak, in which we Page 85 FIGURE 6. What political institutions does largescale democracy require? Largescale democracy requires: 1. Elected officials 2. Free, fair, and frequent elections three. Freedom of expression four. Alternative sources of information five. Associational autonomy 6. Inclusive citizenship would reflect carefully on human experiences, tendencies, possibilities, and limitations and design a set of political institutions that would be necessary for largescale democracy to exist and yet feasible and attainable within the limits of human capacities. Fortunately, all three methods converge on the same set of democratic political institutions. These, then, are minimal requirements for a democratic country (fig. 6). THE POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS OF MODERN REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY Briefly, the political institutions of modern representative democratic government are: 1. Elected officials. Control over government decisions about policy is constitutionally vested in officials elected by citizens. Thus modern, largescale democratic governments are representative. 2. Free, fair, and frequent elections. Elected officials are chosen in frequent and fairly conducted elections in which coercion is comparatively uncommon. three. Freedom of expression. Citizens have a right to express themselves without danger of severe punishment on political Page 86 matters broadly defined, including criticism of officials, the government, the regime, the socioeconomic order, and the prevailing ideology. four. Access to alternative sources of information. Citizens have a right to seek out alternative and independent sources of information from other citizens, experts, newspapers, magazines, books, telecommunications, and the like. Moreover, alternative sources of information actually exist that are not under the control of the government or any other single political group attempting to influence public political briefs and attitudes, and these alternative sources are effectively protected by law. five. Associational autonomy. To achieve their various rights, including those required for the effective operation of democratic political institutions, citizens also have a right to form relatively independent associations or organizations, including independent political parties and interest groups. 6. Inclusive citizenship. No adult permanently residing in the country and subject to its laws can be denied the rights that are available to others and are necessary to the five political institutions just listed. These include the rights to vote in the election of officials in free and fair elections; to run for elective office; to free expression; to form and participate in independent political organizations; to have access to independent sources of information; and rights to other liberties and opportunities that may be necessary to the effective operation of the political institutions of largescale democracy. THE POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS IN PERSPECTIVE Ordinarily these institutions do not arrive in a country all at once.