Reasoning About Knowledge (MIT Press)

By Joseph Y. Halpern

Reasoning approximately knowledge--particularly the data of brokers who cause concerning the global and every other's knowledge--was as soon as the specific province of philosophers and puzzle solvers. extra lately, this kind of reasoning has been proven to play a key function in a stunning variety of contexts, from realizing conversations to the research of disbursed desktop algorithms.Reasoning approximately wisdom is the 1st booklet to supply a normal dialogue of ways to reasoning approximately wisdom and its functions to disbursed structures, man made intelligence, and online game thought. It brings 8 years of labor by way of the authors right into a cohesive framework for knowing and studying reasoning approximately wisdom that's intuitive, mathematically good based, beneficial in perform, and commonly acceptable. The ebook is nearly thoroughly self-contained and may be available to readers in numerous disciplines, together with desktop technology, man made intelligence, linguistics, philosophy, cognitive technology, and video game conception. every one bankruptcy contains workouts and bibliographic notes.

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Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 109 116 121 123 123 131 one hundred thirty five 136 138 141 a hundred forty five Protocols and courses five. 1 activities . . . . . . . . five. 2 Protocols and Contexts five. three courses . . . . . . . five. four requisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 163 167 one hundred eighty 183 . . . . . . . . . . 189 one hundred ninety 199 206 213 218 224 225 226 230 232 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . universal wisdom and contract 6. 1 Coordinated assault . . . . . . . . . . . 6. 2 Agreeing to Disagree . . . . . . . . . . . 6. three Simultaneous Byzantine contract . . . 6. four Nonrigid units and customary wisdom . 6. five reaching SBA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. 6 reaching universal wisdom . . . . . 6. 6. 1 fresh Rounds . . . . . . . . . . 6. 6. 2 Waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. 6. three Computing universal wisdom 6. 7 unique Proofs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Knowledge-Based Programming 253 7. 1 Knowledge-Based courses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 7. 2 Getting specified Representations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 7. three wisdom Bases Revisited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271 ix 7. four 7. five 7. 6 7. 7 eight nine A Knowledge-Based software for SBA powerful Correctness . . . . . . . . . . . The Sequence-Transmission challenge . Proving powerful Correctness of ST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276 281 283 290 Evolving wisdom eight. 1 homes of information and Time . . . eight. 2 Synchrony and ideal keep in mind . . . . . eight. three wisdom and Time in A. M. P. structures eight. four wisdom and Time in Inoa ( ) . . . . eight. five a more in-depth examine Axiom OAn, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303 303 307 311 313 318 Logical Omniscience nine. 1 Logical Omniscience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nine. 2 particular illustration of data . . . . . nine. 2. 1 The Syntactic strategy . . . . . . . . nine. 2. 2 The Semantic process . . . . . . . . nine. 2. three dialogue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nine. three Nonstandard common sense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nine. three. 1 Nonstandard buildings . . . . . . . . nine. three. 2 powerful Implication . . . . . . . . . . . nine. three. three A Payoff: Querying wisdom Bases . nine. three. four dialogue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nine. four very unlikely Worlds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nine. five understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nine. 6 neighborhood Reasoning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nine. 7 Concluding feedback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333 334 337 338 340 345 346 346 350 354 357 357 362 368 373 . . . . . . . 391 391 394 394 398 399 402 403 10 wisdom and Computation 10. 1 wisdom and motion Revisited . . . . . . . 10. 2 Algorithmic wisdom . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. 2. 1 Algorithmic wisdom structures . . . 10. 2. 2 houses of Algorithmic wisdom . 10. three Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. four Algorithmic wisdom courses . . . . . . . 10. four. 1 Algorithmic wisdom Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . x 10. four. 2 Algorithmic wisdom and Complexity . . . . . . . . . . 405 10. four. three imposing Knowledge-Based courses . . . . . . . . . 408 eleven universal wisdom Revisited eleven.

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