Return to the Sea: The Life and Evolutionary Times of Marine Mammals

By Annalisa Berta

Return to the ocean portrays the existence and evolutionary instances of marine mammals—from big whales and sea cows that originated fifty five million years in the past to the deep diving elephant seals and clam-eating walruses of contemporary occasions. This interesting account of the foundation of assorted marine mammal lineages, a few extinct, others extant yet threatened, is for the non-specialist. Set opposed to a backdrop of geologic time, altering climates, and altering geography, evolution is the unifying precept that is helping us to appreciate the current day variety of marine mammals and their responses to environmental demanding situations. Annalisa Berta explains present controversies and explores styles of switch happening at the present time, comparable to transferring meals webs and predator-prey relationships, habitat degradation, worldwide warming, and the consequences of people on marine mammal communities.

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Cladogram A branching diagram that depicts relationships between organisms in accordance with recency of universal ancestry. clade A monophyletic workforce of organisms. clicks A wide band frequency of sound of brief length. codas development of clicks utilized by sperm whales. ucp-berta-book. indb 176 2/10/12 9:19 AM Glossary / 177 conching A foraging habit visible in a few dolphins during which they acquire conch shells and produce them to the skin of the water to flush out and devour prey. convergent evolution A similarity between organisms that's the results of a shared ecology instead of shared ancestry. continental flow the concept continents this day as soon as shaped a wide land mass that divided (drifted) relative to each other. corpus albicans an enduring seen scar at the ovary of whales that files variety of ovulations even though now not pregnancies. countercurrent the other flow of adjoining elements that maximizes the flow of warmth or power. countershading one of those camouflage in marine mammals during which the higher (dorsal) floor of the physique is darkish and the bottom (ventral) floor is gentle in colour. crittercams Cameras worn by means of animals. crown crew dwelling participants of a gaggle and their universal ancestors. deep scattering layer focus of zooplankton came across at intensity in the course of the day that migrates to the skin at evening. behind schedule implantation Suspension of improvement of the embryo in a few marine mammals for a number of weeks or months. pores and skin center layer of epidermis among the skin (outer layer) and blubber (inner layer). desmostylians the one recognized completely extinct greater workforce (order) of marine mammals. diatoms an enormous team of algae with glass-like (silica) partitions which are very important fundamental manufacturers. electronic acoustic tag Small machine that measures the reaction of untamed marine mammals to sound. dna bar coding strategy that makes use of brief genetic marker (barcode) to spot an organism’s DNA as belonging to a selected species. dna fingerprinting Identification of people in response to their DNA profile. domoic acid A toxin produced through a number of marine diatom species. dorsal fin Fin situated at the again or dorsal floor of the physique of varied whales. drag refers back to the strength that opposes move. echolocation The creation of excessive frequency sounds and its reception via reflected echoes utilized by toothed whales to navigate and find prey. ucp-berta-book. indb 177 2/10/12 9:19 AM 178 / word list ectotherm counting on the exterior setting to manage temperature. el niño Oceanographic occasions that take place within the jap Pacific Ocean each few years related to alterations in present styles, raises in water temperature, and a decline in upwelling. encephalization quotient A numeric comparability that considers mind dimension relative to physique dimension. endangered species act A U. S. legislations handed in 1973 to set up a application to spot, shield species at risk of extinction, and supply for his or her restoration. endotherm physique temperature that it really is regulated through muscular job. skin Outer or most sensible layer of dermis. evolution Descent with modification or extra specifically adjustments in gene frequencies via time.

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